Max Institute of Heart and Vascular Sciences
Cardiac sciences involve the study as well as the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Max Hospitals, India, is a Centre of Excellence for the treatment of CVD, which includes diseases like congenital heart diseases, heart failure, heart defects, and coronary artery diseases.
Types of Cardiovascular Diseases
In most cases, heart diseases usually occur owing to the heart’s structural issues, damaged vessels, or blood clots. Some common types of cardiovascular diseases are mentioned below:
- Congenital heart problem - This occurs when there is a structural defect within the heart right from birth. It may be associated with heart valves, heart walls, veins and arteries near the heart. There is a significant defect in the normal flow of the blood leading to multiple complications that can vary in criticality.
- Angina - This disease occurs when the heart does not receive an adequate supply of blood due to the presence of plaque within blood vessels that often interrupt the flow. For restoring blood supply, the heart beats harder and faster, leading to the condition of angina.
- Heart Attack – Also known as coronary thrombosis or acute myocardial infarction, this is one of the most critical complications related to the heart and occurs due to a sudden interruption of blood supply to the heart. The blockage occurs owing to the accumulation of plaque within the inner walls of the arteries. When such a deposit of plaque breaks down, multiple blood cells get stuck to it, forming clots.
- Arrhythmia – This disease occurs when the heart either skips or adds an extra beat that disturbs the normal heart rhythm. Sometimes it may become life-threatening.
- Heart Failure – This occurs when the heart muscles fail to pump blood throughout the body. Symptoms include shortness of breath, fatigue and weakness, swelling(edema) in legs, ankles and feet, and rapid heartbeat.
Some of the common diagnostic tests to detect cardiovascular diseases are
- Blood Tests – Various lab tests are performed by doctors to check the normal signs of heart-related factors such as cholesterol, fats, and lipid components of blood.
- ECG or Electrocardiogram – ECG is used for recording the electric activities within the heart. The result shows the rhythm as well as the speed of the heart. It is usually conducted for determining angina attacks, arrhythmias, and heart attack.
- Echocardiogram – This is also known as a diagnostic cardiac ultrasound used for checking the working as well as the structure of the heart. It uses sound waves to create a moving image of the heart on the monitor. This test is also used to identify heart muscles that are not contracting normally.
- Stress Test – This test is used for checking how the body of a patient reacts when exposed to external stress. Doctors often ask patients to run on a treadmill with the patches of ECG on their bodies,to measure the heart activities.
- Angiography - it is an imaging test that uses X-rays to view your body’s blood vessels. The test is used to study narrow, blocked, enlarged or malformed arteries or veins in any part of the body.
- Cardiac MRI - It is used to detect or monitor cardiac diseases and to evaluate the heart’s anatomy and function in patients with heart disease present at birth or that develops after birth.
- Chest X-Ray - To evaluate the lungs, heart, and chest and also to diagnose shortness of breath, persistent cough, or chest pain, it gives the patient a detailed picture of all.
When diagnosed and heart disease is identified in an individual, cardiologists
recommend certain treatments that are best suited to the patient.